Revolution Day (Egypt)

Public holiday celebrated in Egypt to commemorate the military coup of July 23, 1952, that led to the end of the monarchy and the establishment of an independent republic.

Annual celebrations marking the Revolution begin on the preceding evening, as the evening of 22 July 1952 was when the Free Officers Movement led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser commenced the military coup d'état that launched the Revolution, and ultimately led to the abdication of King Farouk (the penultimate King of Egypt and Sudan). The public holiday itself is characterised by large and elaborate celebrations, including televised concerts with heavily nationalistic themes, and military parades.

History
The coup was carried out by a clandestine group called the Free Officers, led by Gen. Mohammad Naguib. The group of former army officers had been established by Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1949 to plan a coup against the government of King Farouk. They successfully overthrew the king in 1952 and installed a more democratic government noted for the institution of major land reforms that sought to recover the land to the poor. The Revolution derived its principles from the values of the Egyptian people such as social justice, rejection of alliance policy, the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) led by Egypt, independence of national decision, and building a strong army. All these values, incarnated the principles of the Revolution and are in fact the values of the Egyptian people borne in the national conscience throughout the prolonged course of struggle.
The revolution took place literally overnight. On the morning of July 23 the Free Officers took over vital government offices, utilities, and media stations, and announced the change of government to the Egyptian people. The coup was extremely well-orchestrated and highly successful thanks largely to Colonel al-Nasser’s planning. He and General Neguib forced King Farouk I to abdicate on July 26.
General Neguib became the first President, and Nasser became the Minister of the Interior, taking over the presidency in 1954.