Independent Day of Pakistan
Suggested by: Samy
The Independence Day in Pakistan is celebrated as the day when they got independence from the British rule and emerged as a separate nation. This day is also dedicated to all the martyrs, who risked their life so that they live in a free nation. Their Struggle will never be forgotten and the people there pray tribute to them by celebrating Independence Day with full patriotic spirit.
Independence Day (Urdu:Yaum-e Azadi), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan, commemorating the day when Pakistan achieved independence and was declared a sovereign nation, following the end of the British Raj in 1947. Pakistan came into existence as a result of the Pakistan Movement; the Pakistan Movement aimed for creation of an independent Muslim state by division of the north-western region of the South Asia and was led by All-India Muslim League under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The event was brought forth by the Indian Independence Act 1947 in which the British Indian Empire gave independence to the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan) which included the West Pakistan (present Pakistan) and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
In the Islamic calendar, the day of independence coincided with Ramadan 27, the eve of which is regarded as sacred by Muslims. The main ceremony takes place in Islamabad, where the national flag is hoisted at the Presidential and Parliament buildings, which is followed by the national anthem, and live televised speeches by leaders. Usual celebratory events this day include flag-raising ceremonies, parades, cultural events, and the playing of patriotic songs. A number of award ceremonies are often held on this day, and citizens often hoist the national flag atop their homes or display it prominently on their vehicles and attire.
The area constituting Pakistan was historically a part of the British Indian Empire. The East India Company begun their trade in the South Asia in the 17th century, and the company rule started from 1757 when they won the Battle of Plassey. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown assuming direct control over India. All-India Muslim League was founded by the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka, in 1906, in the context of the circumstances that were generated over the division of Bengal in 1905 and the party aimed at creation of a separate Muslim state.
Thereafter, in 1930 the creation of a separate country was proposed under the leadership of Muhammad Iqbal. The commission formed to declare India as an independent nation took this proposal by the Muslin League into consideration. And finally after the discussions between Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the idea of an independent Pakistan certified.
The Muslims were late in realising that the independence according to Congress’ conception would reduce them to the status of dependency, even worse than under the British rule. Muslim leadership, after having bitter experience from the Congress and British, decided to form their own political party. Muslim League was then formed in 1906. Innumerable Muslim Leaders, Muslim newspapers, Ulema, Heads of Muslim States, Anjumans and parties like Khilafat Movement and Khaksar played a vital role within their sphere and met controversial treatment with Congress and the British. By 1930 Muslims ceased to regard themselves as minority and advocated that there .are Hindus and Muslims, two nations living in India.
Muslim League emerged as a powerful political party. Allama Iqbal rightly said in his presidential address at League’s Allahabad session in 1930 that ‘Muslim demand for the creation of Muslim India, within India, was therefore perfectly justified’. The name ‘Pakistan’ coined by Ch. Rehmat Ali at Cambridge.
Muslim League held its session at Lahore in1940 and passed the ‘Pakistan Resolution’. From 1940 to 1947 the partition of the sub-continent remained the explosive issue of Indian politics between British, Congress and the League. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Great Muslim Leader (Quaid-e-Azam) led League throughout the negotiations and got Britain and Congress agreed to the partition. Thus the British Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act on July 18, 1947, and the independent state of Pakistan came into existence on 14th August, 1947.
In 1946, the Labour government in Britain, getting exhausted by recent events such as World War II and numerous riots, realised that it had neither the mandate at home, the support internationally, nor the reliability of British Indian Army for continuing to control an increasingly restless India. Reliability of the native forces for continuing their control over an increasingly rebellious India diminished, thus the government decided to end British rule of India. In 1946, Indian National Congress, being a secular party, demanded a single state. The Muslim majorities, having disagreement with the idea of single state, gave stress to the idea of Pakistan, as a response to Congress' demand for a single state. In 1946, a Cabinet Mission was sent to try and reach a compromise between Congress and the Muslim League, proposing a decentralized state with much power given to local governments, but it was rejected by both the parties. This also resulted in many communal riots in the South Asia.
Eventually, in February 1947, Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced that the British government would grant full self-governance to British India by June 1948 at the latest. On 3 June 1947, the British government announced that the principle of division of British India in two independent states was accepted. The successor governments would be given dominion status and would have an implicit right to secede from the British Commonwealth. Viceroy Mountbatten chose the second anniversary of Japan's surrender in the World War II as the date of power transfer. He chose 14 August as the date of the ceremony of power transfer to Pakistan because he wanted to attend ceremonies both in India and Pakistan.
The Indian Independence Act 1947 passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, divided British India into the two new independent dominions; India and Pakistan. The act provided a mechanism for division of Bengal and Punjab provinces between the two nations, establishment of the office of the governor-general, conferral of complete legislative authority upon the respective Constituent Assemblies, and division of joint property between the two new countries. On 14 August 1947, the new Dominion of Pakistan came into existence and Muhammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as its first governor general in Karachi. Everyone rejoiced the independence, but the atmosphere remained heated as communal riots marked the independence of Pakistan in 1947. The act later received royal assent on 18 July 1947.
Since the power of transfer took place on the midnight of 14 and 15 August, the Indian Independence Act 1947 recognised 15 August as the birthday of both Pakistan and India.
It was on 15 August that the nation celebrated its birthday, however in subsequent years 14 August was marked as the independence day. The first commemorative postage stamps of the country, released in July 1948, also gave 15 August 1947 as the independence day. The night of 14–15 August 1947 coincided with 27 Ramadan 1366 of the Islamic calendar, which Muslims regard as a sacred night.
The independence day is one of the six public holidays observed in Pakistan and is celebrated all over the country.
Independence Day in Pakistan is observed with flag hoisting, homage to the patriots, and firecrackers taking place at the capital. In the capital Islamabad, the President and the Prime minister raise the flag at the Parliamentary and Presidential Buildings then followed by a speech. Their leaders had thought to build up a bright nation and the new men-in-charge are not going to shatter their hopes. The speech asks every citizen to play his part towards the nation and never give up the patriotic spirit. To prize the nation above all is the only moral that Independence Day greatly signifies.
There are flag hoisting ceremonies along with cultural programs that take place in every provincial capital. Nazim (Mayor) does the Flag Hoisting Ceremony in their respective cities belonging to the constituency. In most private organizations, senior officers do the Flag Hoisting Ceremony. Schools and colleges are closed on this day. They only run the school to hoist the national flag and make children aware of the importance of this day.
The flag hoisting is done by senior persons then followed by a speech making the students once again reminded of the great sacrifices made. It also refreshes memories about the turmoil undergone by our leaders so that we live in an independent state. The students salute the national flag and also perform March past as a homage. There are also cultural events held.
Independence day of Pakistan is celebrated with great enthusiasm not only in Pakistan, but it is also done with the same vigor in Beijing, China, European countrymen and many others.