Laylat al-Qadr (Arabic: لیلة القدر) (also known as Shab-e-Qadr , loaned from Persian), variously rendered in English as the Night of Destiny, Night of Power, Night of Value, the Night of Decree or Night of Measures. It is the anniversary of two very important dates in Islam that occurred in the month of Ramadan. It is the anniversary of the night Muslims believe the first verses of the Quran were revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. This night is told to be around the last ten days on Ramadan. Its a night where Muslims believe that god blesses everyone, and forgive all sins, accept all prayers as you wish, and the angles come down. This night is usually thought to be on 23rd (as per fatimid) or 25th or 27th of Ramadan.
Revelation to Muhammad
Most of the Muslims believe that Laylat al-Qadr is to be the night when the Quran was first revealed to Muhammad from Allah. Most but not all Muslims believe that revelation of the Quran occurred in two phases, with the first phase being the revelation in its entirety on Laylat al-Qadr to the angel Gabriel (Jibril in Arabic) in the lowest heaven, and then the subsequent verse-by-verse revelation to Muhammad by Gabriel, across 23 years. The revelation started in 610 CE at the Hira cave on Mount Nur in Mecca. The first Sura that was revealed was Sura Al-Alaq (in Arabic) العلق . During the first revelation the first five verses of this Sura, chapter, were revealed.
Muslims often offer extra prayers on this day, particularly the night prayer. They awake, pray, and hope Allah will give them anything they may desire on this night. Mostly, they perform tilawat (reading the Quran).
Those who can afford to devote their time in the remembrance of Allah stay in the mosque for the final ten days of Ramadan. This worship is called Iʿtikāf (retreat). They observe a fast during the day and occupy themselves with the remembrance of Allah, performing voluntary prayers and studying the Quran, day and night, apart from the obligatory prayers which they perform with the congregation. Food and other necessities of life are provided for them during their stay in the mosque. Devoting time to remember Allah, Muslims also hope to receive divine favors and blessings connected with Lailat ul-Qadr.
As per the Quran (Sura Qadr) Angels come down on the earth with all things (destiny of the people for the coming year). 'The angels and Jibreel descend in it by the permission of their Lord for every affair' (97:4)
Laylat al-Qadr is to be found in the last five odd nights occurring during the final 10 days of Ramadan. There is no mention in the Quran as to when the specific date is. Therefore in Islamic countries and Sunni communities all over the world, Laylat al-Qadar is found to be on the last nights of Ramadan, mostly in on one of the odd nights (21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th) whereby night precedes day. Many traditions insist particularly on the night before the 27th of Ramadan.
Similarly Lailatul Qadr' is to be found in the last ten odd nights of Ramadan but mostly on the 19th or 21st or 23rd or 27th night of Ramadan. The 19th, according to the Shia belief coincides with the night Ali was attacked in the Mihrab while worshipping in the Great Mosque of Kufa, and died on the 21st of Ramadhan. Shia Muslims worship and regard these four nights as greatly rewarding.
Many Shia Muslims, who make up the largest minority of Islamic followers — including the Ismailis and especially Dawoodi Bohra's — observe Laylat al-Qadr on the night of the 23rd, in keeping with traditions received through Ali and his wife Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter and Fatimid Imams. The tradition is also said to have been articulated by Ja'far al-Sadiq and other Shia Imams.